Learning to Lead
Value-centered leadership at North Georgia is based on recognizing the strength of having the many differences amongst our community of students, faculty, staff, and administration. In valuing differences we can agree to disagree and learn from each others varying backgrounds and experiences. Leadership is a developmental process of growing one's skills in leading others with an awareness and knowledge of our own honesty and integrity. The character of a leader is recognized in how we choose to demonstrate our abilities on the campus and within the community. The highest goal of North Georgia College is to have graduating professionals that can lead in the global community with the ability to serve others with increasing wisdom for the future.
North Georgia has embraced and implemented a leadership vision that involves: innovative teaching, educating engaged citizens, contributing to community service, and generating an organizational cultural that is a reflections of our beliefs. In the end, we have an obligation to graduate students with integrity, honesty, loyalty and a comprehensive skills set to be a leader in the global community. For information on the mission of Servant Leadership at North Georgia see the Leadership Roundtable.
LEADERSHIP THEORIES PAST AND PRESENT
Past and current leadership theory includes social responsibility, personal growth, and setting, implementing and reaching personal and organizational goals. With knowledge comes expectation by oneself and others (Ascher, 2006). The study of leadership is vast and crosses many disciplines. Beyond the great man theory and trait theory (Stogdill, 1974) of "leaders are born, not made" and behavioral theories (Skinner, 1967; Bandura, 1982) of "leaders are made, not born", the organizational theories of contingency (Fiedler, 1964; House, 1974; Vroom & Yetton, 1973, & Hersey & Blanchard, 1972) of worker and context productivity, the give and take of transactional leadership (Bass, 1985), the ethical and humble servant leadership (Greenleaf , 1977), and the high moral values of Burns' transformational leadership all add components toward understanding the complex nature of leadership.
More recently, transformational leadership by Bass (1985) places great value on personal development through the reciprocal interaction of leader and followers. Nested within this transformative theory are authentic leadership (Avolio & Gardner, 2005), principle centered leadership (Covey, 1992) and value-centered leadership (Secretan, 2000; Chappell, 2005) which place a premium on creating a positive work environment for spiritual growth and development while highlighting self-awareness (Asher. 2005). These theories place a premium on transforming beliefs into action.
Leaders are born and not made. When there is a need the great leader will arise.
People are born with traits that are particularly suited to leadership. People who make good leaders have the correct combination of traits such as ambition, achievement-orientation, and decisiveness (Stogdill, 1974).
Leaders are not born they are made. Successful leadership is based in defined, learned behaviors.
Reward and punishment are the best way to motivate people. Transactional leaders work best with a clear chain of command and a clear structure for followers.
Fiedler's contingency theory is the earliest and most extensively researched. The leader's ability according to Fielder (1964) is based (contingent) on situational factors, including the leader's preferred style, the motivation and abilities of followers. In Fielder's (1967) LPC (least preferred co-worker) theory relationships, power and task structure are the three key factors that drive effective styles. High LPC leaders tend to have close and positive relationships that are supportive and low LPC leaders put tasks before relationships.
House's (1971) Path-Goal Theory was developed to provide ways in which leaders can encourage and support their followers in achieving the goals they have been set by making a clear and easy path. According to House and Mitchell (1974) leaders can: 1) clarify the path so followers know the way to go, 2) help remove roadblocks, and 3) increase rewards along the path.
Vroom and Yetton (1973) defined five different decision procedures and the situational factors that influence a leaders decision making strategy. Two are autocratic (A1 and A2), two are consultative (C1 and C2) and one is Group based (G2).
Leaders adapt their style to meet the developmental level of the follower (Hersey & Blanchard, 1972). Style is therefore based on the readiness and willingness of the workers to perform their required tasks with competence and motivation. There are four leadership styles (S1 to S4) that match the development levels (skills & motivation) of the followers.
Charismatic Leaders use vision to build group cohesion. Conger & Kanungo (1994) describe five behavioral attributes of Charismatic Leaders that indicate a more transformational viewpoint: 1) vision and articulation, 2) sensitivity to the environment, 3) sensitivity to member needs, 4) personal risk taking, 5) performing unconventional behavior.
Bass' Transformational Leaders (1985) put vision, energy and passion into their followers being highly successful. According to Bass, a leader needs to be people-oriented and have a deep commitment to the progress and personal development of their followers.
Authentic Leadership is described as a root concept (Avolio & Gardner, 2005) that underlies positive approaches to leadership such as transformational, charismatic, and servant leadership. The idea that authentic leadership begins with is developing authenticity, that increases self-awareness.
Servant Leadership is best described by Greenleaf (1977) " as a way of being" in relationship with others. Servant-leadership seeks to involve others in decision making. The leader can only be successful if they serve those they lead. There are 10 critical principles to servant leadership: 1) listening, 2) empathy, 3) healing of relationships, 4) awareness, 5) persuasion, 6) conceptualization, 7) foresight, 8) stewardship, 9) commitment to the growth of people, 10) building community.
Principle Centered Leadership (Covey, 1990) requires a commitment to significant self-improvement processes with long-term effectiveness change for the person in terms of their quality of work and life. When people are committed to their personal growth and improvement they are more likely to contribute their increased potential toward their organization and career objectives.
Values Centered Leadership by Tom Chappell is conveyed in his message of leadership through an ideal of a "common goodness in others." Tom Chappell managed to keep this value of seeing the goodness in others while maintaining the financially successful business - Tom's of Maine (Keller, 2005).
Values-centered LeadershipT (Lance Secretan, 2000) is based on the key idea that leadership has timeless values that help us to be of service to others. These "Primary Values" help us in our own personal growth through: 1) Mastery: Undertaking whatever you do to the highest standards of which you are capable, 2) Chemistry: Relating so well with others that they actively seek to associate themselves with you, 3) Delivery: Identifying the needs of others and meeting them with respect and a passion for being of service.
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Keller, T. (2005). Crunchy Capitalism: How Value-Centered Leadership Has Allowed Tom's of Maine and the Environment to Prosper . The Dartmouth Green Magazine.
Secretan, L. (2000). http://www.secretan.com/aboutus_lance_secretan.php .
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Vroom, V.H. and Yetton, P.W. (1973). Leadership and decision-making . Pittsburg : University of Pittsburg Press.